Few Basic Keyboard Shortcuts When the Mouse Is Broken

There are many devices which can assist and make it easier when you are using a computer. One of the most important from those devices is the computer mouse. Computer mouse has become standard accessories in every PC. It help computer user to navigate within the computer screen and run it with just one click.

Unfortunately, some of these devices are rather easily broken and have short life. So, most of them are consider as disposable devices. When they have become broken and unrepairable, especially during important work, it will become quite annoying situation.

So, what should we do if the computer mouse has ceased to function and cannot be fixed when you are working an important document? Some people would become very worry, panic, and went to the closest electronic store immediately.

While there is nothing wrong with that action, but what if this situation is happen at night while most of the stores will not be open until 9am? Should you abandon the document that you are working on and waiting anxiously until the morning when the store is open?

So, if you are desperate to finish the important document that you are working on without using the mouse, you can use the keyboard shortcuts to perform various important functions without using the mouse. Therefore, you can continue to working on the document until the store has opened.

Here are some important shortcut keys that you can use to replace some of the PC mouse’s important functions;

Ctrl + S – to immediately save your work or changes in the document

Ctrl + O – to open the window of files that you want to opened

Ctrl + B – to change the fonts into Bold shape

Ctrl + I – to change the fonts into Italic shape

Ctrl + U – to put underline below the fonts

Ctrl + X – to cut highlighted characters or picture

Ctrl + W – to close the current windows

Ctrl + R – to arrange the document to the right alignment

Ctrl + L – to arrange the document to the left alignment

Ctrl + E – to arrange the document to the center alignment (especially in Word application)

Ctrl + Z – to undo the last changes or action

Ctrl + Y – to repeat the last action or redo the action that has been undone with Ctrl + Z

Ctrl + Shift + arrow – to highlight characters

Ctrl + Shift + DEL – to delete a word on the right side of cursor

Ctrl + Shift + Backspace – to delete a word on the left side of cursor

Ctrl + left/right arrow – to move the cursor between words or hyphen

Shift F7 – to activate the Thesaurus feature

F7 – to activate the spelling and grammar check feature

F12 – to save the document under different name (Save as)

Windows + D – minimize all the active windows to shows the desktop

Alt + Tab – switches the current window with other windows that are currently active on the desktop

F5 – refreshes the active window or browser (if you are using the Internet)

Ctrl + Esc – to show the “Start Menu” if you are using an older keyboard version that do not has Windows keys

F6 – to activate the address bar on the browser so you can type the URL

Ctrl + C – to copy the highlighted character or picture

Ctrl + V – to paste the copied character or picture

Windows + E – to open the Windows Explorer immediately and directly without using the Start Menu

Alt + F4 – to close the current window or application

If you are able to learn these basic keyboard’s shortcuts, you definitely are able to continue your work even if the mouse is malfunction. And if you are proficient with the shortcuts, you can perform your work faster without having to move in and out from keyboard to mouse for simple and basic function.

Buying a Refurbished Laptops

Refurbished LaptopsComputing freedom, independence, and mobility don’t have to come with a hefty price tag. Manufacturers refurbish laptop is the laptop computers that have been returned. The laptop might have a scratched screen or other minor blemish.

In some cases, the laptop was an unwanted gift or its packaging was dented. The laptop is inspected by the manufacturer, tested for quality, and repackaged for sale at a much lower price.

While many new laptops can cost thousands of dollars, most refurbished laptop computers usually cost less than a couple of grand, and often less than $500. In most cases, they are as good as new and have a very low return rate. They even come with guarantees and warranties, just as you would expect with a new model.

A refurbished laptop can satisfy most people’s basic computing needs, such as word processing, running software, reading e-mail, creating spreadsheets, playing CDs, surfing the Internet, and more. Laptops allow access to all these features from anywhere.

All laptop manufacturers offer refurbished laptops, including such popular brands as Dell, IBM, Toshiba, and HP.

Laptop prices are affected by type of processor, operating system, modem, and network card; size of the hard drive and RAM (Random Access Memory); and whether there is a CD/DVD-ROM/RW, a video card, a sound card, and zip drive. Prices are also affected by screen size and type of chassis.

The price will be affected by all these specifications, along with how well preserved the chassis is, the name of the manufacturer, and whether you acquire the laptop form the factory or through a private dealer. Private dealers charge less, but beware: not all dealers are up to par with their refurbishing skills. Be sure to go to one that is reputable and experienced.

How Computers Count

How Computers CountThe world around us has many aspects which work in the same way as a computer. There are many examples of opposites, for instance Up and Down, Left and Right, Forwards and Backwards. A light may be On or Off, maybe it’s Night or Day. Yes or No? You can think of many others.

This system of two possible states is called a Binary System. If it’s not one, it must be the other.

A computer uses the Binary System to perform all its functions. The basic unit, originally made from a vacuum tube, then a transistor, then a chip, is used thousands of times over to make the total unit. The light being On or Off which we mentioned above is controlled by a switch. In the computer this switch is a transistor, which is either On or Off.

The Binary system is a Number System. You are familiar with the Decimal system which has 10 numerals 0 to 9 (think like a computer 0 comes first). You can make up all sorts of number systems for whatever purpose you want. You probably know about a dozen (12) and have also heard of a half dozen.

If you’ve used your computer much you may have come across the Hexadecimal system. This one has 16 ‘numerals’ 0-9and A-F. Another number system used by computer people is the Octal system which has 8 numerals, 0-7.

So, how do we count with only 0 and 1. Simple, in exactly the same way you count in decimal. The first ten numbers are OK, 0-9, but what next? We start again but add in a 1 making 10 or “one, zero”. This gets us to “one, nine” and we go to “two, zero”, and so on up to “nine, nine” then we again add a 1 to make 100 – “one, zero, zero.”

DECIMAL 0-9, 10-19, 20-…..-99, 100.

In the Binary sequence, it’s much simpler. Starting off at zero we have 0,1 – and that’s it. We follow the same rule and add in a 1, making “one,zero”. Next come “one, one”; then “one, zero, zero”; -“one, zero, one”; etc. These are equivalent to Decimal 0,1,2,3,4,5. How does this relate to computers? That’s next.

BINARY – 0 1 10 11 100 101

DECIMAL- 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5

In our computer we have transistor switches, as described above. For the math example we just looked at, we need 3 switches. These each represent a Binary Digit, or Bit. To represent a Decimal 1, these switches would be OFF,OFF,ON or 001. For a Decimal 5 we would have ON,OFF,ON, or 101. By extension you can see that with 4 switches we could go to 1111 or 15 Decimal.

TRANSISTORS [OFF OFF ON] [ON OFF ON] [ON ON ON ON]

BINARY…… 001 101 1111

DECIMAL….. 1, 5, 15

Another point to note is that each binary digit, or bit, has a value. Just as in Decimal we have units, tens, hundreds, etc. in Binary the values are 1,2,4,8,16,32,64,128 etc. etc. The binary code 1111 mentioned above is thus 1+2+4+8=15. what would BINARY 1010 be in decimal?

BIT VALUE 8 4 2 1

BINARY…. 1 0 1 0

DECIMAL… 8+2=10

If you wanted to work out what binary 100101100 was in decimal, you could add up the individual values. In fact people who work on the basic machines need to know “machine code”! To them 1010 would be A in Hexadecimal or 12 in octal.

One of the reasons for using the octal or hexadecimal code is to enable humans to interpret machine codes. Some mainframe computers use ‘words’ composed of 24, 32, 36 or 72 bits. These are displayed or printed in groups of three for octal, or four for hexadecimal. For example the 24 bit binary word in a computer may be interpreted as shown here.

BINARY 100 111 000 011 010 000 011 100

OCTAL.. 4 7 0 3 2 0 3 4

BINARY 1001 1100 0011 0100 0001 1100

HEX…. 9 D 3 4 1 D

This probably seems a very long-winded way to work out numbers, until you remember that these ‘switches’ can operate at nanosecond speed, in the order of 1,000,000,000 times per second, large calculations become possible.

Cleaning the Clogged Printhead

Cleaning the Clogged PrintheadIf your inkjet or bubblejet printer has clogged printheads there are 2 possible reasons:

Ink has dried in the nozzles

It is important to note that although genuine inks have anti-clogging agents in their formulation, if you have not used your printer in a long time the ink will dry up in the printhead. With genuine inks a couple of head cleans will usually get the ink flowing again.

If you are using refill or compatible cartridges more aggressive head cleans may be necessary. You may need printhead cleaning solution. The best way to stop ink drying in the printhead is to use your printer every week. Just print out a test page which will use black and colour.

Foreign matter has blocked the holes in the nozzles.

This is caused by foreign matter in the ink – always from small unfiltered particles from refill ink or lower quality compatible cartridges manufactured in a dusty environment – or the printhead collecting paper dust from poor quality paper, or the printhead picking up muck in an overfull parking station.

What is a parking station? This is where the printhead sits when the printer is not printing, usually on the right hand side inside the printer. There is a small rubber cap here which sits under the printhead to protect and prevent it drying out. On most printers it also provides a cleaning function and there is a lot of waste ink in this area- so it is the perfect place to collect dust and muck.

You can get a cotton bud in there and clean it by switching the printer off then on, and then when the printhead moves away from the parking station switch the printer off at the wall. You will then be able to access this area for cleaning.

If foreign matter in the ink has blocked the printheads and your printhead is fixed into the machine, put new original cartridges in your machine as this will usually dissolve any particles in the printhead. If your printhead is removable, take it out of the machine and sit it in about 5ml of very hot (not boiling!) water for a few minutes.

Dry thoroughly and re-insert into the machine and do a couple of printer head cleans. Repeat until the nozzles are unblocked. Always use good quality inks or compatibles in your printer – original inks are always best.

If you open your printer and you can see a fine white powder inside the machine, this is paper dust. This is getting into the print nozzles!

Always use good quality paper and once in a while use compressed air to clean out the inside of your printer (use a can of compressed air, not compressed air from a compressor – or you’ll blow away the electronics in your printer!).